In order to give both artists and their designs multiple outlets in means of creation, various reproduction methods have been invented throughout history. Even in this day and age of modern technology the art community continues to develop new ideas as to manufacturing their perception and outlook on the world in which we live. Providing a stable foundation for these techniques to build upon though, are more accustomed methods such as lithograph prints, art on metal, serigraph prints, giclees, and oil paintings, just to name a few.
Reproduction by using oil paints has remained among the art culture for centuries, dating back to times earlier then the 15th century. For a piece to be created by using this technique a designer normally begins with sketching their drawing upon paper, cotton or linen fabric canvas, which is stapled to and sized by a wooden frame. Before painting upon the canvas, oil paints are mixed with another resin or oil to generate a slower, faster, or thinner oil paint.
Once applying the paint, a fat over lean skill is used to give each layer a denser consistency of paint so that the final piece doesn't peel or crack. In the drying stage of this method the piece dries by oxidation rather than evaporation, and normally isn't considered fully dried until 60 to 80 years after being painted.
Starting to become a more widely used reproduction craft of creating designs, portraits, drawings, etc. is the giclee technique. Giclees, named by Jack Duggane who worked for Graham Nash, obtained popularity due to his continual use of the method with an IRIS printer to give his work a higher resolution value and enhanced detailing. Illustrations that were originally simple drawings, computer-generated art, or photographs could be amplified by using prepress proofing inkjet printers for their final images, which eventually led to prints being printed upon other materials such as metal.
Evolving reproduction by giclees offered opportunity for artists to shift their work to other materials such as metal, which some might refer to as art on metal. The duplication of original pieces to sheets of metal allowed them to be seen from a rather unique view. Having a smooth surface and the design being depicted in various graduations drew attention to detailing that might not have been able to be seen if it were on a regular canvas. If a piece was a simple silhouette, the metal could reflect the image and add depth to the piece.
Achieving wide spread popularity in Europe was a reproduction style that at first demanded a common limestone canvas, and it is known as the lithograph technique. In its early years of use the traditional medium was limestone, today this process can be performed upon paper, mylar, printing plates, polyester, or aluminum, depending on the piece. When using limestone the image was sketched upon a wax or oil coated element rather than simple fabrics or paper so that proper bonding of the elements was able to take place. In a modern use the lithograph process is used to mass produce maps, books, newspapers, and posters.
Developing from China and stretching to Europe and the United States was a reproduction style that is used to express a more rebellious nature in society on artistic views with economic and social disarray.
The serigraph style has two methods of production, which are the traditional style and a stencil style. The traditional style uses a mesh fabric, a screen, and a flood bar. The screen separates the design from the ink, while the flood bar works ink into the open areas in the design as it is pulled back and forth.
The stencil style takes a more technical approach by the design being drawn or applied to an overlay. Then the image is exposed to UV light that passes through the open areas and polymerization of the emulsion on the design begins to take place, and after this, the final image is ready to be shown. Even though many artists use this style, the most renowned creator known for his serigraph stencil work is Andy Warhol. He has not only had his pieces shown in many exhibits, but they can also be seen all over the streets in which we walk today.